Tuesday, November 17, 2020

Mental health disorders are associated with COVID-19

- Kenny Lin, MD, MPH

Eight months ago, during the first wave of the pandemic, Dr. Jennifer Middleton discussed World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-recommended strategies and resources for optimizing mental health in health care workers, patients, and children. A CDC representative national survey conducted in late June found a strikingly high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder (30.9%), trauma- and stressor-related disorder (26.3%) and new or increased substance use (13.3%). By comparison, a 2019 survey found that only 8.1% and 6.5% of people had symptoms of anxiety or depression, respectively. 1 in 10 respondents to this year's survey also reported having seriously considered suicide in the preceding 30 days, with disproportionately higher suicidality in younger adults (age 18-24 years), racial and ethnic minorities, essential workers, and unpaid adult caregivers.

In a recent commentary, Dr. Christine Moutier from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention recommended several COVID-19-specific suicide prevention strategies that fuse clinical, health system, and policy interventions: reduce risk for people with mental illness or addiction; increase social connectedness; address risk at the moment of crisis; reduce access to lethal means; address COVID-19 increases in alcohol consumption and drug overdoses; mitigate financial strain; address domestic violence and unsafe environments; and prevent unsafe media and entertainment messaging on suicide.

The rise in anxiety, depression, stress, and suicidality coincided with the widespread conversion of office-based visits for behavioral and psychiatric conditions to telehealth, which may have restricted access to mental health care for existing and new patients. As three psychiatrists observed in a JAMA Viewpoint:

Patients with psychiatric disorders are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 due to high rates of overweight, tobacco smoking, medical comorbidities, and poor self-care. ... Daily news of large-scale COVID-19–related disease and death in the community over months or years is almost certain to elevate psychiatric burden in the population. As such, the pattern of stress resembles that experienced by refugees or others exposed to chronic violence. ... A sustained increase in demand for psychiatric services may well exceed the existing capacity of the system over time and may last for years, depending on the course the pandemic takes.

Persons with prior psychiatric diagnoses may be at higher risk of death from COVID-19 infection. A cohort study of 1685 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 from February through April found that after controlling for demographics, medical comorbidities, and hospital location, patients with a psychiatric disorder were 1.5 times as likely to die as those with no psychiatric diagnosis. Citing a kinship network study that suggested that each COVID-19 death in the U.S. leaves nine bereaved close family members, some have suggested that primary care physicians screen relatives of persons who die from COVID-19 for symptoms of depression, prolonged grief, or post-traumatic stress disorder and provide evidence-based interventions if needed.

On the other hand, a diagnosis of COVID-19 may increase the risk for developing a mental health disorder. A retrospective cohort study that utilized electronic health record data from more than 62,000 U.S. patients between January 20 and August 1 found that COVID-19 survivors were more likely to have a first psychiatric diagnosis, a new psychiatric diagnosis, or a relapse of a previously stable diagnosis within 14 to 90 days than six other unrelated health events. However, this study design could not determine if these additional diagnoses were preexisting and unrecognized prior to COVID-19 infection or a direct consequence of the infection or medical management (including isolation at home or in the hospital).